**UNIT 1 : SETS,
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:**

Sets and their
representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their
algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations,
equivalence relations, functions;. one-one, into and onto functions,
composition of functions.

**UNIT 2 : COMPLEX
NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:**

Complex numbers as
ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form
a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of
complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex
number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic
equations in real and complex number system and their solutions.
Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of
quadratic equations with given roots.

**UNIT 3 : MATRICES
AND DETERMINANTS:**

Matrices, algebra of
matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and
three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of
triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a
square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of
consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or
three variables using determinants and matrices.

**UNIT 4 :
PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:**

Fundamental principle
of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection,
Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.

**UNIT 5 :
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:**

Principle of
Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.

**UNIT 6 : BINOMIAL
THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:**

Binomial theorem for a
positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of
Binomial coefficients and simple applications.

**UNIT 7 :
SEQUENCES AND SERIES:**

Arithmetic and
Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between
two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of
special series: S n, S n2, Sn3. Arithmetico - Geometric progression.

**UNIT 8 : LIMIT,
CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:**

Real - valued
functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric,
logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of
simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability.
Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two
functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,
logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives
of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems.
Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic-
increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of
one variable, tangents and normals.

**UNIT 9 : INTEGRAL
CALCULUS:**

Integral as an anti-
derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by
parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric
identities.

Integral as limit of a
sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals.
Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions
bounded by simple curves in standard form.

**UNIT 10:
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:**

Ordinary differential
equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations.
Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of
variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of
the type: dy/dx+p(x)y=q(x)

**UNIT 11:
CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY:**

Cartesian system of
rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section
formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line,
parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate
axes.

**Straight lines**

Various forms of
equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines,
conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a
line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two
lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a
triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of
intersection of two lines.

**Circles, conic
sections**

Standard form of
equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its
radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a
diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with
the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a
circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic
sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition
for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

**UNIT 12: THREE
DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY:**

Coordinates of a point
in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios
and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines,
the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line
and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane,
coplanar lines.

**UNIT 13: VECTOR
ALGEBRA:**

Vectors and scalars,
addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three
dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple
product.

**UNIT 14:
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY:**

Measures of Dispersion:
Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data
calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for
grouped and ungrouped data.

Probability:
Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of
probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random
variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.

**UNIT 15:
TRIGONOMETRY:**

Trigonometrical
identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse
trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.

**UNIT 16:
MATHEMATICAL REASONING:**

Statements, logical
operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding
of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

**2. Chemistry**

## SECTION: A

## PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

### UNIT 1: SOME BASIC
CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY

Matter and its nature,
Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and
compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry,
precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional
analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses,
mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and
molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

### UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER

Classification of
matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Gaseous State:

Measurable properties
of gases; Gas laws- Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of
diffusion, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept
of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of
gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most
probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour,
compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.

Liquid State:

Properties of liquids
- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of
temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).

Solid State:

Classification of
solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and
crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its
applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and
hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters,
imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.

### UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Thomson and Rutherford
atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic
radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model
of hydrogen atom- its postulates, derivation of the relations for
energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of
Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's relationship,
Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics,
quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, ?? and ??2,
concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of
?? and ??2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers
(principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their
significance; shapes of s, p and d- orbitals, electron spin and spin
quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals- aufbau
principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic
configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely
filled orbitals.

### UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING
AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE

Kossel- Lewis
approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent
bonds.

Ionic Bonding:
Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic
bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.

Covalent Bonding:
Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence
Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple
molecules. Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond
theory- Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s,
p and d orbitals; Resonance.

Molecular Orbital
Theory- Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals
(bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic
configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order,
bond length and bond energy.

Elementary idea of
metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

### UNIT 5: CHEMICAL
THERMODYNAMICS

Fundamentals of
thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions, types of processes.

First law of
thermodynamics- Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy,
heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat
summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation,
atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and
solution. Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; DS of
the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Dgo
(Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

### UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS

Different methods for
expressing concentration of solution- molality, molarity, mole
fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of
solutions and Raoult's Law- Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour
pressure- composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions;
Colligative properties of dilute solutions- relative lowering of
vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling
point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using
colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff
factor and its significance.

### UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM

Meaning of equilibrium,
concept of dynamic equilibrium.

Equilibria involving
physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid- gas and solid- gas
equilibria, Henry's law, general characterics of equilibrium involving
physical processes.

Equilibria involving
chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp
and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical
equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure,
temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's principle.

Ionic equilibrium: Weak
and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of
acids and bases (Arrhenius, Br??nsted- Lowry and Lewis) and their
ionization, acid- base equilibria (including multistage ionization)
and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion
effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of
sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

### UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS
AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Electronic concepts of
oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for
assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.

Eectrolytic and
metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and
molar conductivities and their variation with concentration:
Kohlrausch's law and its applications.

Electrochemical cells
- Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes,
electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-
cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement;
Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell
potential and Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator;
Fuel cells.

### UNIT 9 : CHEMICAL
KINETICS

Rate of a chemical
reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration,
temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions,
order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its
units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order
reactions, their characteristics and half- lives, effect of
temperature on rate of reactions- Arrhenius theory, activation energy
and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions
(no derivation).

### UNIT-10 : SURFACE
CHEMISTRY

Adsorption-
Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors
affecting adsorption of gases on solids- Freundlich and Langmuir
adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.

Colloidal state-
distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions,
classification of colloids- lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular,
macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and
properties of colloids- Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,
electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and
their characteristics.

**SECTION- B**

## INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

### UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON
OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES

Modem periodic law and
present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements,
periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states
and chemical reactivity.

### UNIT 12: GENERAL
PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS

Modes of occurrence of
elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of
metals- concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods)
and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and
Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the
extraction of metals.

### UNIT 13: HYDROGEN

Position of hydrogen in
periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen;
Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure,
preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a
fuel.

### UNIT 14: S- BLOCK
ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)

#### Group- 1 and 2
Elements

General introduction,
electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical
properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of
each group, diagonal relationships.

Preparation and
properties of some important compounds- sodium carbonate and sodium
hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and
cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

### UNIT 15: P- BLOCK
ELEMENTS

#### Group- 13 to Group
18 Elements

General Introduction:
Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical
properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique
behaviour of the first element in each group.

Groupwise study of the
p- block elements

#### Group- 13

Preparation, properties
and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane,
boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

#### Group- 14

Allotropes of carbon,
tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and
zeolites.

#### Group- 15

Properties and uses of
nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation,
properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and
phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of
phosphorus.

#### Group- 16

Preparation,
properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur;
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid
(including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of
sulphur.

#### Group- 17

Preparation, properties
and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen
halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of
halogens.

#### Group-18

Occurrence and uses of
noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

### UNIT 16: d- and f-
BLOCK ELEMENTS

#### Transition Elements

General introduction,
electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends
in properties of the first row transition elements- physical
properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour,
catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation,
interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and
uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 .

Inner Transition
Elements

Lanthanoids-
Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.

Actinoids-
Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

### UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION
COMPOUNDS

Introduction to
co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, co-ordination
number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and
basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties;
Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
extraction of metals and in biological systems).

**UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL
CHEMISTRY**

Environmental pollution
- Atmospheric, water and soil.

Atmospheric pollution
- Tropospheric and Stratospheric

Tropospheric pollutants
- Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur,
hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house
effect and Global warming; Acid rain;

Particulate pollutants:
Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and
prevention.

Stratospheric
pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer
- its mechanism and effects.

Water Pollution-
Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical
pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.

Soil pollution-
Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and
fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control
environmental pollution.

## SECTION-C

## ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

### UNIT 19: PURIFICATION
AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Purification-
Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and
chromatography- principles and their applications.

Qualitative analysis
- Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative analysis
(basic principles only)- Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,
halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.

Calculations of
empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic
quantitative analysis.

### UNIT 20: SOME BASIC
PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Tetravalency of carbon;
Shapes of simple molecules- hybridization (s and p); Classification
of organic compounds based on functional groups:- C = C- ,- C h
C- and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur;
Homologous series; Isomerism- structural and stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial
and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission
- Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and
carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles
and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement
in a covalent bond- Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance
and hyperconjugation.

### UNIT 21: HYDROCARBONS

Classification,
isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation,
properties and reactions.

Alkanes-
Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of
halogenation of alkanes.

Alkenes- Geometrical
isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen,
halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide
effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.

Alkynes- Acidic
character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides;
Polymerization.

Aromatic hydrocarbons
- Nomenclature, benzene- structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of
electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel-
Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional
group in mono-substituted benzene.

### UNIT 22: ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS

General methods of
preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of
substitution reactions.

Uses; Environmental
effects of chloroform & iodoform.

### UNIT 23: ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN

General methods of
preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND
ETHERS

Alcohols:
Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of
dehydration.

Phenols: Acidic nature,
electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and
sulphonation, Reimer- Tiemann reaction.

Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde and Ketones:
Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group,
relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such
as- Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its
derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and
Clemmensen); acidity of - hydrogen, aldol condensation,
Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish
between aldehydes and Ketones.

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Acidic strength and
factors affecting it.

### UNIT 24: ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

General methods of
preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Amines: Nomenclature,
classification, structure, basic character and identification of
primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

### UNIT 25: POLYMERS

General introduction
and classification of polymers, general methods of
polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and
synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with
emphasis on their monomers and uses- polythene, nylon, polyester and
bakelite.

### UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES

General introduction
and importance of biomolecules. CARBOHYDRATES- Classification:
aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and
constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and
maltose).

PROTEINS- Elementary
Idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins:
primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea
only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

VITAMINS-
Classification and functions.

NUCLEIC ACIDS-
Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic
acids.

### UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN
EVERYDAY LIFE

Chemicals in medicines
- Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,
antihistamins- their meaning and common examples.

Chemicals in food-
Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents- common examples.
Cleansing agents- Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

### UNIT 28: PRINCIPLES
RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY

Detection of extra
elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the
following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl
(aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.

Chemistry involved in
the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr's salt,
potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline
yellow, iodoform.

Chemistry involved in
the titrimetric excercises- Acids bases and the use of indicators,
oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr's salt vs KMnO4.

Chemical principles
involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations- Pb2+ , Cu2+,
AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+. Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4
2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).

Chemical principles
involved in the following experiments:

1. Enthalpy of solution
of CuSO4

2. Enthalpy of
neutralization of strong acid and strong base.

3. Preparation of
lyophilic and lyophobic sols.

4. Kinetic study of
reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

**UNIT 1: PHYSICS
AND MEASUREMENT**

Physics, technology and
society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy
and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement,
Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its
applications.

**UNIT 2:
KINEMATICS**

Frame of reference.
Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs,
relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector
addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit
Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane,
Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.

**UNIT 3: LAWS OF
MOTION**

Force and Inertia,
Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of
motion; Impulse; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of
linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.

Static and Kinetic
friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.

Dynamics of uniform
circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

**UNIT 4: WORK,
ENERGY AND POWER**

Work done by a constant
force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy
theorem, power.

Potential energy of a
spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and
nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two
dimensions.

**UNIT 5:
ROTATIONAL MOTION**

Centre of mass of a
two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of
rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum,
conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of
inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple
geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their
applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.

**UNIT 6:
GRAVITATION**

The universal law of
gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude
and depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential
energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a
satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

**UNIT 7:
PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS**

Elastic behaviour,
Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk
modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's
law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity,
streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli's principle
and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of
contact,application of surface tension- drops, bubbles and capillary
rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity,
calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction,
convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling.

**UNIT 8:
THERMODYNAMICS**

Thermal equilibrium,
zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and
internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of
thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and
its efficiency.

**UNIT 9: KINETIC
THEORY OF GASES**

Equation of state of a
perfect gas, work doneon compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases-
assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms
speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of
energy,applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free
path, Avogadro's number.

**UNIT 10:
OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES**

Periodic motion-
period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic
functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase;
oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in
S.H.M.- kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum-
derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped
oscillations, resonance.

Wave motion.
Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement
relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves,
reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound

**UNIT 11:
ELECTROSTATICS**

Electric charges:
Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point
charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and
continuous charge distribution.

Electric field:
Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric
dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform
electric field.

Electric flux,
Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long
uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its
calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges;
Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two
point charges in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and
insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor,
combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a
parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the
plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

**UNIT 12: CURRRENT
ELECTRICITY**

Electric current, Drift
velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different
materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors,
Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for
resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature
dependence of resistance. Electric Cell and its Internal resistance,
potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series
and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone
bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer- principle and its applications.

**UNIT 13: MAGNETIC
EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM**

Biot- Savart law and
its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and
its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and
solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric
fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a
current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between
two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque
experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil
galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and
voltmeter.

Current loop as a
magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an
equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and
magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.

Magnetic susceptibility
and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

**UNIT 14:
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS**

Electromagnetic
induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy
currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms
value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR
series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits,
wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

**UNIT 15:
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES**

Electromagnetic waves
and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic
spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays,
gamma rays). Applications of e.m. waves.

**UNIT 16: OPTICS**

Reflection and
refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula,
Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion
of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens,
Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical
Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers.

Wave optics: wavefront
and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using
Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and
expression for fringe width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of
central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical
telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses
of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

**UNIT 17: DUAL
NATURE OF MATTER ANDRADIATION**

Dual nature of
radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations;
Einstein's photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter
waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer
experiment.

**UNIT 18: ATOMS
AND NUCLEI**

Alpha-particle
scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy
levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic
masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma
particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy
relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with
mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

**UNIT 19:
ELECTRONIC DEVICES**

Semiconductors;
semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias;
diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell
and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction
transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor;
transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and
oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a
switch.

**UNIT 20:
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS**

Propagation of
electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation,
Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of
signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a
Communication System (Block Diagram only).

**SECTION-B**

**UNIT 21: EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS**

Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and
activities:

1. Vernier callipers-its use to measure internal and external diameter and depth of a
vessel.

2. Screw gauge-its use to determine thickness/diameter of thin sheet/wire.

3. Simple Pendulum-dissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of
amplitude and time.

4. Metre Scale - mass of a given object by principle of moments.

5. Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire.

6. Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents.

7. Co-efficient of Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity
of a given spherical body.

8. Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot
body and time.

9. Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.

10. Specific heat capacity of a given

(i) solid and

(ii) liquid by method of mixtures.

11. Resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge.

12. Resistance of a given wire using Ohm's law.

13. Potentiometer-

(i) Comparison of emf of two primary cells.

(ii) Determination of internal resistance of a cell.

14. Resistance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method.

15. Focal length of:

(i) Convex mirror

(ii) Concave mirror, and

(iii) Convex lens using parallax method.

16. Plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism.

17. Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

18. Characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.

19. Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and finding reverse break down voltage.

20. Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain.

21. Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from mixed
collection of such items.

22. Using multimeter to:

(i) Identify base of a transistor

(iii) See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.(iv) Check the correctness or
otherwise of a given electronic component (diode, transistor or IC)

**Please verify the
latest syllabus from official website: http://jeemain.nic.in**